Qualitative research is mainly used to perceive activities of people and the reasons that rule such behaviors. This method focuses on decision making while putting emphasis on why, how, what, where and when they occur. It also concentrates on content analysis and evaluation of text material depending on the expected topic of study. The main way in which results are organized and reported in this method is by the category of data into patterns.
The paper explores on data analysis and reporting plan. A descriptive research design would be used in the study of gender for women. It gives views and feelings from the respondents regarding factors that can influence the study. The plan is achieved by choice of an appropriate method of data collection and analysis for the expected topic of study. Appropriate data collection and coding methods are also discussed before a conclusion is made. The plan is done relative to the proposed study topic called ‘Women‘s Gender Studies’ as discussed below.
Data collection in the study would be done accordingly. Qualitative researchers use many methods to gather information. They include analysis of written documents, reflexive journals, participant observation, and structured interviews. Written documents can be used to collect data. Information on the proposed topic may be found from library or resource centers. The knowledge gathered can then be used in data analysis. Participant observation is where the researcher becomes part of the group to adopt roles and conform to that setting. This enables him to accurately understand the motivation and emotions of the culture involved in the study. The perception from participant observation will provide the researcher with enough information which can be used in data analysis, (Creswell, 2006).
Structured interview is the appropriate method for data collection for the proposed study. It involves the use of questionnaires. A sample interview would be ‘How does education determine glass ceiling for women?’ This will be done through hand delivery and collected after a few days. The types of questions to be used include both open and closed ended. Closed ended questions are used to ensure that the given answers are relevant. The researcher is expected to frame the questions clearly in order to clarify the dimensions along which responses could be analyzed. In open ended questions, space should be provided for relevant explanation by the respondents, thus giving them freedom to express their feelings. This method is considered effective to the study because it creates confidentiality.
Data coding would be done after collection. Coding is a technique that interprets and organizes data in an orderly way. It is simply the change of collected data into a short version by assigning codes. Codes would be used to present data on education and marital status. The codes include E for educated and NE for not educated. M would be used for married while S to denote the single women. This method shows summary of the characters under study. It can also give a picture of the similarities and differences in the related codes during the study. The relationships can also be clearly captured by use of codes.
Coding technique would be definitely vital for the study. It would make data analysis to be easy. The researcher would simply summarize the prevalence codes that have been used in the study. A discussion that involves similarities and differences in the related codes would then be done. The relationships between and among the codes would also be analyzed accordingly. It ensures that the researcher uses less storage place for the data collected. Comparisons are also shortened making the research to be easier and faster. Coding means quick data input and makes validation to be simple.
Data analysis procedure includes the process of packaging the collected information, putting it in order and structuring its main components in a way that the findings can be easily and effectively communicated. After fieldwork, all questionnaires would be adequately checked for reliability and verification. Editing, coding and tabulation would then be carried out. Qualitative analysis involves analysis of content and evaluation of text material in the study, (Schwandt, 2007).
The data should be analyzed using qualitative techniques. They are various methods of qualitative analysis. They include ethnographic, grounded theory and constant comparative analysis. Ethnographic research is done by the study of a particular culture and how they perceive a concept. Grounded theory analyzes data through various observations. The valid approach for the proposed study is constant comparative analysis. This method involves the sociological theory of symbolic interaction. In this case, one piece of data is taken and compared with all the others that may be similar or different in order to develop relations between various pieces of data. In the anticipated study, various cultures and setting could be used to compare women while studying their gender.
Constant comparative analysis is used to generalize knowledge about common patterns and themes within human experiences. The processes continuous with comparison of each new interview or account until all have been compared with each other. In other words, every phenomenon is studied on its own one at time using this method. A good example is from the probable study where geography, age, career, business or marriage status could be used to compare women. The analyst in this case would be keen to note in all these case that actually makes the women to be different from each other. This would make the data to be easily understood by the readers and scholars, (Ray, 2006).
The method is indeed suitable for the predicted study. This is because the design is specifically used to analyze human phenomena with the context in which they are experienced. The examiner is assured of comfort while using this method. The fundamental social processes in the approach would definitely capture all the issues of human behavior an experiences that are necessary in studying the gender of women. This makes it to be very appropriate for the study. Culture and setting would be used to compare women. Culturally, American women are different from African women in all aspects of life. Likewise, women from the town set up are not the same as those who have grown up in rural set up.
Reporting should finally be done for the findings. This is presenting the study in a way that it can be read and understood by everybody. It should be done keenly and thoroughly. The researcher needs to make the report to be self-explanatory. Any well-educated manager should be able to understand it fully without having to make further inquiries. The study report should contain a brief thought on the research and how data was collected, coded and analyzed. It should also shed light on the preliminaries and the appendices of the writing.
The report is very significant in the study. This is because it contains the summary of key ideas, responses and the methodology that the investigator used to complete the work. Report ways include the use of graphs, pie charts, histograms and tables. These methods ensure data clarity in the research work especially the use of graphs. A good example is the use of graph in reporting the study of Women Gender. It will make an organization or a manager who wants information about women to quickly establish the same by mere look at the graphs.
In conclusion, qualitative analysis plan has been put across. Appropriate techniques of data collection, coding and reporting have also been highlighted. This sets the researcher on motion to proceed with the proposed topic of study.